文法のまとめ(Summary of the Grammar)

最終更新日: 2021/7/3
原文: https://docs.swift.org/swift-book/ReferenceManual/zzSummaryOfTheGrammar.html

Lexical Structure(構文の構造)

GRAMMAR OF WHITESPACE
whitespace → whitespace-item whitespaceopt
whitespace-item → line-break
whitespace-item → inline-space
whitespace-item → comment
whitespace-item → multiline-comment
whitespace-item → U+0000, U+000B, または U+000C
line-break → U+000A
line-break → U+000D
line-break → U+000D に続く U+000A
inline-spaces → inline-space inline-spacesopt
inline-space → U+0009 または U+0020
comment → // comment-text line-break
multiline-comment → /* multiline-comment-text */
comment-text → comment-text-item comment-textopt
comment-text-item → U+000A または U+000D を除く任意のUnicodeスカラ値
multiline-comment-text → multiline-comment-text-item multiline-comment-textopt
multiline-comment-text-item → multiline-comment
multiline-comment-text-item → comment-text-item
multiline-comment-text-item → /* または */ を除く任意のUnicodeスカラ値

GRAMMAR OF AN IDENTIFIER
identifier → identifier-head identifier-charactersopt
identifier → ` identifier-head identifier-charactersopt `
identifier → implicit-parameter-name
identifier → property-wrapper-projection
identifier-list → identifier | identifier , identifier-list
identifier-head → 大文字または小文字の A ~ Z
identifier-head → _
identifier-head → U+00A8, U+00AA, U+00AD, U+00AF, U+00B2–U+00B5, または U+00B7–U+00BA
identifier-head → U+00BC–U+00BE, U+00C0–U+00D6, U+00D8–U+00F6, または U+00F8–U+00FF
identifier-head → U+0100–U+02FF, U+0370–U+167F, U+1681–U+180D, または U+180F–U+1DBF
identifier-head → U+1E00–U+1FFF
identifier-head → U+200B–U+200D, U+202A–U+202E, U+203F–U+2040, U+2054, または U+2060–U+206F
identifier-head → U+2070–U+20CF, U+2100–U+218F, U+2460–U+24FF, または U+2776–U+2793
identifier-head → U+2C00–U+2DFF または U+2E80–U+2FFF
identifier-head → U+3004–U+3007, U+3021–U+302F, U+3031–U+303F, または U+3040–U+D7FF
identifier-head → U+F900–U+FD3D, U+FD40–U+FDCF, U+FDF0–U+FE1F, または U+FE30–U+FE44
identifier-head → U+FE47–U+FFFD
identifier-head → U+10000–U+1FFFD, U+20000–U+2FFFD, U+30000–U+3FFFD, または U+40000–U+4FFFD
identifier-head → U+50000–U+5FFFD, U+60000–U+6FFFD, U+70000–U+7FFFD, または U+80000–U+8FFFD
identifier-head → U+90000–U+9FFFD, U+A0000–U+AFFFD, U+B0000–U+BFFFD, または U+C0000–U+CFFFD
identifier-head → U+D0000–U+DFFFD または U+E0000–U+EFFFD
identifier-character → 数値 0 ~ 9
identifier-character → U+0300–U+036F, U+1DC0–U+1DFF, U+20D0–U+20FF, または U+FE20–U+FE2F
identifier-character → identifier-head
identifier-characters → identifier-character identifier-charactersopt
implicit-parameter-name → $ decimal-digits
property-wrapper-projection → $ identifier-characters

GRAMMAR OF A LITERAL
literal → numeric-literal | string-literal | boolean-literal | nil-literal
numeric-literal → -opt integer-literal | -opt floating-point-literal
boolean-literal → true | false
nil-literal → nil

GRAMMAR OF AN INTEGER LITERAL
integer-literal → binary-literal
integer-literal → octal-literal
integer-literal → decimal-literal
integer-literal → hexadecimal-literal
binary-literal → 0b binary-digit binary-literal-charactersopt
binary-digit → 数値 0 または 1
binary-literal-character → binary-digit | _
binary-literal-characters → binary-literal-character binary-literal-charactersopt
octal-literal → 0o octal-digit octal-literal-charactersopt
octal-digit → 数値 0 ~ 7 octal-literal-character → octal-digit | _
octal-literal-characters → octal-literal-character octal-literal-charactersopt
decimal-literal → decimal-digit decimal-literal-charactersopt
decimal-digit → 数値 0 ~ 9
decimal-digits → decimal-digit decimal-digitsopt
decimal-literal-character → decimal-digit | _
decimal-literal-characters → decimal-literal-character decimal-literal-charactersopt
hexadecimal-literal → 0x hexadecimal-digit hexadecimal-literal-charactersopt
hexadecimal-digit → 数値 0 ~ 9、 a ~ f、または A ~ F
hexadecimal-literal-character → hexadecimal-digit | _
hexadecimal-literal-characters → hexadecimal-literal-character hexadecimal-literal-charactersopt

GRAMMAR OF A FLOATING-POINT LITERAL
floating-point-literal → decimal-literal decimal-fractionopt decimal-exponentopt
floating-point-literal → hexadecimal-literal hexadecimal-fractionopt hexadecimal-exponent
decimal-fraction → . decimal-literal
decimal-exponent → floating-point-e signopt decimal-literal
hexadecimal-fraction → . hexadecimal-digit hexadecimal-literal-charactersopt
hexadecimal-exponent → floating-point-p signopt decimal-literal
floating-point-e → e | E
floating-point-p → p | P
sign → + | -

GRAMMAR OF A STRING LITERAL
string-literal → static-string-literal | interpolated-string-literal
string-literal-opening-delimiter → extended-string-literal-delimiteropt "
string-literal-closing-delimiter → " extended-string-literal-delimiteropt
static-string-literal → string-literal-opening-delimiter quoted-textopt string-literal-closing-delimiter
static-string-literal → multiline-string-literal-opening-delimiter multiline-quoted-textopt multiline-string-literal-closing-delimiter
multiline-string-literal-opening-delimiter → extended-string-literal-delimiter """
multiline-string-literal-closing-delimiter → """ extended-string-literal-delimiter
extended-string-literal-delimiter → # extended-string-literal-delimiteropt
quoted-text → quoted-text-item quoted-textopt
quoted-text-item → escaped-character
quoted-text-item → "\、 U+000A、または U+000D を除く任意のUnicodeスカラ値
multiline-quoted-text → multiline-quoted-text-item multiline-quoted-textopt
multiline-quoted-text-item → escaped-character
multiline-quoted-text-item → \ を除く任意のUnicodeスカラ値
multiline-quoted-text-item → escaped-newline
interpolated-string-literal → string-literal-opening-delimiter interpolated-textopt string-literal-closing-delimiter
interpolated-string-literal → multiline-string-literal-opening-delimiter multiline-interpolated-textopt multiline-string-literal-closing-delimiter
interpolated-text → interpolated-text-item interpolated-textopt
interpolated-text-item → \( expression ) | quoted-text-item
multiline-interpolated-text → multiline-interpolated-text-item multiline-interpolated-textopt
multiline-interpolated-text-item → \( expression ) | multiline-quoted-text-item
escape-sequence → \ extended-string-literal-delimiter
escaped-character → escape-sequence 0 | escape-sequence \ | escape-sequence t | escape-sequence n | escape-sequence r | escape-sequence " | escape-sequence '
escaped-character → escape-sequence u { unicode-scalar-digits }
unicode-scalar-digits → 0 から 8 までの16進数
escaped-newline → escape-sequence inline-spacesopt line-break

GRAMMAR OF OPERATORS
operator → operator-head operator-charactersopt
operator → dot-operator-head dot-operator-characters
operator-head → / | = | - | + | ! | * | % | < | > | & | | | ^ | ~ | ?
operator-head → U+00A1–U+00A7
operator-head → U+00A9 または U+00AB
operator-head → U+00AC または U+00AE
operator-head → U+00B0–U+00B1
operator-head → U+00B6, U+00BB, U+00BF, U+00D7, または U+00F7
operator-head → U+2016–U+2017
operator-head → U+2020–U+2027
operator-head → U+2030–U+203E
operator-head → U+2041–U+2053
operator-head → U+2055–U+205E
operator-head → U+2190–U+23FF
operator-head → U+2500–U+2775
operator-head → U+2794–U+2BFF
operator-head → U+2E00–U+2E7F
operator-head → U+3001–U+3003
operator-head → U+3008–U+3020
operator-head → U+3030
operator-character → operator-head
operator-character → U+0300–U+036F
operator-character → U+1DC0–U+1DFF
operator-character → U+20D0–U+20FF
operator-character → U+FE00–U+FE0F
operator-character → U+FE20–U+FE2F
operator-character → U+E0100–U+E01EF
operator-characters → operator-character operator-charactersopt
dot-operator-head → .
dot-operator-character → . | operator-character
dot-operator-characters → dot-operator-character dot-operator-charactersopt
infix-operator → operator
prefix-operator → operator
postfix-operator → operator

Types(型)

GRAMMAR OF A TYPE
type → function-type
type → array-type
type → dictionary-type
type → type-identifier
type → tuple-type
type → optional-type
type → implicitly-unwrapped-optional-type
type → protocol-composition-type
type → opaque-type
type → metatype-type
type → any-type
type → self-type
type → ( type )

GRAMMAR OF A TYPE ANNOTATION
type-annotation → : attributesopt inoutopt type

GRAMMAR OF A TYPE IDENTIFIER
type-identifier → type-name generic-argument-clauseopt | type-name generic-argument-clauseopt . type-identifier
type-name → identifier

GRAMMAR OF A TUPLE TYPE
tuple-type → ( ) | ( tuple-type-element , tuple-type-element-list )
tuple-type-element-list → tuple-type-element | tuple-type-element , tuple-type-element-list
tuple-type-element → element-name type-annotation | type
element-name → identifier

GRAMMAR OF A FUNCTION TYPE
function-type → attributesopt function-type-argument-clause throwsopt -> type
function-type-argument-clause → ( )
function-type-argument-clause → ( function-type-argument-list ...opt )
function-type-argument-list → function-type-argument | function-type-argument , function-type-argument-list
function-type-argument → attributesopt inoutopt type | argument-label type-annotation
argument-label → identifier

GRAMMAR OF AN ARRAY TYPE
array-type → [ type ]

GRAMMAR OF A DICTIONARY TYPE
dictionary-type → [ type : type ]

GRAMMAR OF AN OPTIONAL TYPE
optional-type → type ?

GRAMMAR OF AN IMPLICITLY UNWRAPPED OPTIONAL TYPE
implicitly-unwrapped-optional-type → type !

GRAMMAR OF A PROTOCOL COMPOSITION TYPE
protocol-composition-type → type-identifier & protocol-composition-continuation
protocol-composition-continuation → type-identifier | protocol-composition-type

GRAMMAR OF AN OPAQUE TYPE
opaque-type → some type

GRAMMAR OF A METATYPE TYPE
metatype-type → type . Type | type . Protocol

GRAMMAR OF AN ANY TYPE
any-type → Any

GRAMMAR OF A SELF TYPE
self-type → Self

GRAMMAR OF A TYPE INHERITANCE CLAUSE
type-inheritance-clause → : type-inheritance-list
type-inheritance-list → type-identifier | type-identifier , type-inheritance-list

Expressions(式)

GRAMMAR OF AN EXPRESSION
expression → try-operatoropt await-operatoropt prefix-expression infix-expressionsopt
expression-list → expression | expression , expression-list

GRAMMAR OF A PREFIX EXPRESSION
prefix-expression → prefix-operatoropt postfix-expression
prefix-expression → in-out-expression

GRAMMAR OF AN IN-OUT EXPRESSION
in-out-expression → & identifier

GRAMMAR OF A TRY EXPRESSION
try-operator → try | try ? | try !

GRAMMAR OF AN AWAIT EXPRESSION
await-operatorawait

GRAMMAR OF A INFIX EXPRESSION
infix-expression → infix-operator prefix-expression
infix-expression → assignment-operatoropt prefix-expression
infix-expression → conditional-operatoropt prefix-expression
infix-expression → type-casting-operator
infix-expressions → infix-expression infix-expressionsopt

GRAMMAR OF AN ASSIGNMENT OPERATOR
assignment-operator → =

GRAMMAR OF A CONDITIONAL OPERATOR
conditional-operator → ? expression :

GRAMMAR OF A TYPE-CASTING OPERATOR
type-casting-operator → is type
type-casting-operator → as type
type-casting-operator → as ? type
type-casting-operator → as ! type

GRAMMAR OF A PRIMARY EXPRESSION
primary-expression → identifier generic-argument-clauseopt
primary-expression → literal-expression
primary-expression → self-expression
primary-expression → superclass-expression
primary-expression → closure-expression
primary-expression → parenthesized-expression
primary-expression → tuple-expression
primary-expression → implicit-member-expression
primary-expression → wildcard-expression
primary-expression → key-path-expression
primary-expression → selector-expression
primary-expression → key-path-string-expression

GRAMMAR OF A LITERAL EXPRESSION
literal-expression → literal
literal-expression → array-literal | dictionary-literal | playground-literal
literal-expression → #file | #fileID | #filePath
literal-expression → #line | #column | #function | #dsohandle
array-literal → [ array-literal-itemsopt ]
array-literal-items → array-literal-item ,opt | array-literal-item , array-literal-items
array-literal-item → expression
dictionary-literal → [ dictionary-literal-items ] | [ : ]
dictionary-literal-items → dictionary-literal-item ,opt | dictionary-literal-item , dictionary-literal-items
dictionary-literal-item → expression : expression
playground-literal → #colorLiteral ( red : expression , green : expression , blue :expression , alpha : expression )
playground-literal → #fileLiteral ( resourceName : expression )
playground-literal → #imageLiteral ( resourceName : expression )

GRAMMAR OF A SELF EXPRESSION
self-expression → self | self-method-expression | self-subscript-expression | self-initializer-expression
self-method-expression → self . identifier
self-subscript-expression → self [ function-call-argument-list ]
self-initializer-expression → self . init

GRAMMAR OF A SUPERCLASS EXPRESSION
superclass-expression → superclass-method-expression | superclass-subscript-expression | superclass-initializer-expression
superclass-method-expression → super . identifier
superclass-subscript-expression → super [ function-call-argument-list ]
superclass-initializer-expression → super . init

GRAMMAR OF A CLOSURE EXPRESSION
closure-expression → { closure-signatureopt statementsopt }
closure-signature → capture-listopt closure-parameter-clause throwsopt function-resultopt in
closure-signature → capture-list in
closure-parameter-clause → ( ) | ( closure-parameter-list ) | identifier-list
closure-parameter-list → closure-parameter | closure-parameter , closure-parameter-list
closure-parameter → closure-parameter-name type-annotationopt
closure-parameter → closure-parameter-name type-annotation ...
closure-parameter-name → identifier
capture-list → [ capture-list-items ]
capture-list-items → capture-list-item | capture-list-item , capture-list-items
capture-list-item → capture-specifieropt identifier
capture-list-item → capture-specifieropt identifier = expression
capture-list-item → capture-specifieropt self-expression
capture-specifier → weak | unowned | unowned(safe) | unowned(unsafe)

GRAMMAR OF A IMPLICIT MEMBER EXPRESSION
implicit-member-expression → . identifier implicit-member-expression → . identifier . postfix-expression

GRAMMAR OF A PARENTHESIZED EXPRESSION
parenthesized-expression → ( expression )

GRAMMAR OF A TUPLE EXPRESSION
tuple-expression → ( ) | ( tuple-element , tuple-element-list )
tuple-element-list → tuple-element | tuple-element , tuple-element-list
tuple-element → expression | identifier : expression

GRAMMAR OF A WILDCARD EXPRESSION
wildcard-expression → _

GRAMMAR OF A KEY-PATH EXPRESSION
key-path-expression → \ typeopt . key-path-components
key-path-components → key-path-component | key-path-component . key-path-components
key-path-component → identifier key-path-postfixesopt | key-path-postfixes
key-path-postfixes → key-path-postfix key-path-postfixesopt
key-path-postfix → ? | ! | self | [ function-call-argument-list ]

GRAMMAR OF A SELECTOR EXPRESSION
selector-expression → #selector ( expression )
selector-expression → #selector ( getter: expression )
selector-expression → #selector ( setter: expression )

GRAMMAR OF A KEY-PATH STRING EXPRESSION
key-path-string-expression → #keyPath ( expression )

GRAMMAR OF A POSTFIX EXPRESSION
postfix-expression → primary-expression
postfix-expression → postfix-expression postfix-operator
postfix-expression → function-call-expression
postfix-expression → initializer-expression
postfix-expression → explicit-member-expression
postfix-expression → postfix-self-expression
postfix-expression → subscript-expression
postfix-expression → forced-value-expression
postfix-expression → optional-chaining-expression

GRAMMAR OF A FUNCTION CALL EXPRESSION
function-call-expression → postfix-expression function-call-argument-clause
function-call-expression → postfix-expression function-call-argument-clauseopt trailing-closures
function-call-argument-clause → ( ) | ( function-call-argument-list )
function-call-argument-list → function-call-argument | function-call-argument , function-call-argument-list
function-call-argument → expression | identifier : expression
function-call-argument → operator | identifier : operator
trailing-closures → closure-expression labeled-trailing-closuresopt
labeled-trailing-closures → labeled-trailing-closure labeled-trailing-closuresopt
labeled-trailing-closure → identifier : closure-expression

GRAMMAR OF AN INITIALIZER EXPRESSION
initializer-expression → postfix-expression . init
initializer-expression → postfix-expression . init ( argument-names )

GRAMMAR OF AN EXPLICIT MEMBER EXPRESSION
explicit-member-expression → postfix-expression . decimal-digits
explicit-member-expression → postfix-expression . identifier generic-argument-clauseopt
explicit-member-expression → postfix-expression . identifier ( argument-names )
argument-names → argument-name argument-namesopt
argument-name → identifier :

GRAMMAR OF A POSTFIX SELF EXPRESSION
postfix-self-expression → postfix-expression . self

GRAMMAR OF A SUBSCRIPT EXPRESSION
subscript-expression → postfix-expression [ function-call-argument-list ]

GRAMMAR OF A FORCED-VALUE EXPRESSION
forced-value-expression → postfix-expression !

GRAMMAR OF AN OPTIONAL-CHAINING EXPRESSION
optional-chaining-expression → postfix-expression ?

Statements(文)

GRAMMAR OF A STATEMENT
statement → expression ;opt
statement → declaration ;opt
statement → loop-statement ;opt
statement → branch-statement ;opt
statement → labeled-statement ;opt
statement → control-transfer-statement ;opt
statement → defer-statement ;opt
statement → do-statement ;opt
statement → compiler-control-statement
statements → statement statementsopt

GRAMMAR OF A LOOP STATEMENT
loop-statement → for-in-statement
loop-statement → while-statement
loop-statement → repeat-while-statement

GRAMMAR OF A FOR-IN STATEMENT
for-in-statement → for caseopt pattern in expression where-clauseopt code-block

GRAMMAR OF A WHILE STATEMENT
while-statement → while condition-list code-block
condition-list → condition | condition , condition-list
condition → expression | availability-condition | case-condition | optional-binding-condition
case-condition → case pattern initializer
optional-binding-condition → let pattern initializer | var pattern initializer

GRAMMAR OF A REPEAT-WHILE STATEMENT
repeat-while-statement → repeat code-block while expression

GRAMMAR OF A BRANCH STATEMENT
branch-statement → if-statement
branch-statement → guard-statement
branch-statement → switch-statement

GRAMMAR OF AN IF STATEMENT
if-statement → if condition-list code-block else-clauseopt
else-clause → else code-block | else if-statement

GRAMMAR OF A GUARD STATEMENT
guard-statement → guard condition-list else code-block

GRAMMAR OF A SWITCH STATEMENT
switch-statement → switch expression { switch-casesopt }
switch-cases → switch-case switch-casesopt
switch-case → case-label statements
switch-case → default-label statements
switch-case → conditional-switch-case
case-label → attributesopt case case-item-list :
case-item-list → pattern where-clauseopt | pattern where-clauseopt , case-item-list
default-label → attributesopt default :
where-clause → where where-expression
where-expression → expression
conditional-switch-case → switch-if-directive-clause switch-elseif-directive-clausesopt switch-else-directive-clauseopt endif-directive
switch-if-directive-clause → if-directive compilation-condition switch-casesopt
switch-elseif-directive-clauses → elseif-directive-clause switch-elseif-directive-clausesopt
switch-elseif-directive-clause → elseif-directive compilation-condition switch-casesopt
switch-else-directive-clause → else-directive switch-casesopt

GRAMMAR OF A LABELED STATEMENT
labeled-statement → statement-label loop-statement
labeled-statement → statement-label if-statement
labeled-statement → statement-label switch-statement
labeled-statement → statement-label do-statement
statement-label → label-name :
label-name → identifier

GRAMMAR OF A CONTROL TRANSFER STATEMENT
control-transfer-statement → break-statement
control-transfer-statement → continue-statement
control-transfer-statement → fallthrough-statement
control-transfer-statement → return-statement
control-transfer-statement → throw-statement

GRAMMAR OF A BREAK STATEMENT
break-statement → break label-nameopt

GRAMMAR OF A CONTINUE STATEMENT
continue-statement → continue label-nameopt

GRAMMAR OF A FALLTHROUGH STATEMENT
fallthrough-statement → fallthrough

GRAMMAR OF A RETURN STATEMENT
return-statement → return expressionopt

GRAMMAR OF A THROW STATEMENT
throw-statement → throw expression

GRAMMAR OF A DEFER STATEMENT
defer-statement → defer code-block

GRAMMAR OF A DO STATEMENT
do-statement → do code-block catch-clausesopt
catch-clauses → catch-clause catch-clausesopt
catch-clause → catch catch-pattern-listopt code-block
catch-pattern-list → catch-pattern | catch-pattern , catch-pattern-list
catch-pattern → pattern where-clauseopt

GRAMMAR OF A COMPILER CONTROL STATEMENT
compiler-control-statement → conditional-compilation-block
compiler-control-statement → line-control-statement
compiler-control-statement → diagnostic-statement

GRAMMAR OF A CONDITIONAL COMPILATION BLOCK
conditional-compilation-block → if-directive-clause elseif-directive-clausesopt else-directive-clauseopt endif-directive
if-directive-clause → if-directive compilation-condition statementsopt
elseif-directive-clauses → elseif-directive-clause elseif-directive-clausesopt
elseif-directive-clause → elseif-directive compilation-condition statementsopt
else-directive-clause → else-directive statementsopt
if-directive → #if
elseif-directive → #elseif
else-directive → #else
endif-directive → #endif
compilation-condition → platform-condition
compilation-condition → identifier
compilation-condition → boolean-literal
compilation-condition → ( compilation-condition )
compilation-condition → ! compilation-condition
compilation-condition → compilation-condition && compilation-condition
compilation-condition → compilation-condition || compilation-condition
platform-condition → os ( operating-system )
platform-condition → arch ( architecture )
platform-condition → swift ( >= swift-version ) | swift ( < swift-version )
platform-condition → compiler ( >= swift-version ) | compiler ( < swift-version )
platform-condition → canImport ( module-name )
platform-condition → targetEnvironment ( environment )
operating-system → macOS | iOS | watchOS | tvOS | Linux | Windows
architecture → i386 | x86_64 | arm | arm64
swift-version → decimal-digits swift-version-continuationopt
swift-version-continuation → . decimal-digits swift-version-continuationopt
module-name → identifier
environment → simulator | macCatalyst

GRAMMAR OF A LINE CONTROL STATEMENT
line-control-statement → #sourceLocation ( file: file-path , line: line-number )
line-control-statement → #sourceLocation ( )
line-number → 0 以上の 10進整数
file-path → static-string-literal

GRAMMAR OF A COMPILE-TIME DIAGNOSTIC STATEMENT
diagnostic-statement → #error ( diagnostic-message )
diagnostic-statement → #warning ( diagnostic-message )
diagnostic-message → static-string-literal

GRAMMAR OF AN AVAILABILITY CONDITION
availability-condition → #available ( availability-arguments )
availability-arguments → availability-argument | availability-argument , availability-arguments
availability-argument → platform-name platform-version
availability-argument → *
platform-name → iOS | iOSApplicationExtension
platform-name → macOS | macOSApplicationExtension
platform-name → macCatalyst | macCatalystApplicationExtension
platform-name → watchOS
platform-name → tvOS
platform-version → decimal-digits
platform-version → decimal-digits . decimal-digits
platform-version → decimal-digits . decimal-digits . decimal-digits

Declarations(宣言)

GRAMMAR OF A DECLARATION
declaration → import-declaration
declaration → constant-declaration
declaration → variable-declaration
declaration → typealias-declaration
declaration → function-declaration
declaration → enum-declaration
declaration → struct-declaration
declaration → class-declaration
declaration → protocol-declaration
declaration → initializer-declaration
declaration → deinitializer-declaration
declaration → extension-declaration
declaration → subscript-declaration
declaration → operator-declaration
declaration → precedence-group-declaration
declarations → declaration declarationsopt

GRAMMAR OF A TOP-LEVEL DECLARATION
top-level-declaration → statementsopt

GRAMMAR OF A CODE BLOCK
code-block → { statementsopt }

GRAMMAR OF AN IMPORT DECLARATION
import-declaration → attributesopt import import-kindopt import-path
import-kind → typealias | struct | class | enum | protocol | let | var | func
import-path → import-path-identifier | import-path-identifier . import-path
import-path-identifier → identifier | operator

GRAMMAR OF A CONSTANT DECLARATION
constant-declaration → attributesopt declaration-modifiersopt let pattern-initializer-list
pattern-initializer-list → pattern-initializer | pattern-initializer , pattern-initializer-list
pattern-initializer → pattern initializeropt
initializer → = expression

GRAMMAR OF A VARIABLE DECLARATION
variable-declaration → variable-declaration-head pattern-initializer-list
variable-declaration → variable-declaration-head variable-name type-annotation code-block
variable-declaration → variable-declaration-head variable-name type-annotation getter-setter-block
variable-declaration → variable-declaration-head variable-name type-annotation getter-setter-keyword-block
variable-declaration → variable-declaration-head variable-name initializer willSet-didSet-block
variable-declaration → variable-declaration-head variable-name type-annotation initializeropt willSet-didSet-block
variable-declaration-head → attributesopt declaration-modifiersopt var
variable-name → identifier
getter-setter-block → code-block
getter-setter-block → { getter-clause setter-clauseopt }
getter-setter-block → { setter-clause getter-clause }
getter-clause → attributesopt mutation-modifieropt get code-block
setter-clause → attributesopt mutation-modifieropt set setter-nameopt code-block
setter-name → ( identifier )
getter-setter-keyword-block → { getter-keyword-clause setter-keyword-clauseopt }
getter-setter-keyword-block → { setter-keyword-clause getter-keyword-clause }
getter-keyword-clause → attributesopt mutation-modifieropt get
setter-keyword-clause → attributesopt mutation-modifieropt set
willSet-didSet-block → { willSet-clause didSet-clauseopt }
willSet-didSet-block → { didSet-clause willSet-clauseopt }
willSet-clause → attributesopt willSet setter-nameopt code-block
didSet-clause → attributesopt didSet setter-nameopt code-block

GRAMMAR OF A TYPE ALIAS DECLARATION
typealias-declaration → attributesopt access-level-modifieropt typealias typealias-name generic-parameter-clauseopt typealias-assignment
typealias-name → identifier
typealias-assignment → = type

GRAMMAR OF A FUNCTION DECLARATION
function-declaration → function-head function-name generic-parameter-clauseopt function-signaturegeneric-where-clauseopt function-bodyopt
function-head → attributesopt declaration-modifiersopt func
function-name → identifier | operator
function-signature → parameter-clause asyncopt throwsopt function-resultopt
function-signature → parameter-clause asyncopt rethrows function-resultopt
function-result → -> attributesopt type
function-body → code-block
parameter-clause → ( ) | ( parameter-list )
parameter-list → parameter | parameter , parameter-list
parameter → external-parameter-nameopt local-parameter-name type-annotation default-argument-clauseopt
parameter → external-parameter-nameopt local-parameter-name type-annotation
parameter → external-parameter-nameopt local-parameter-name type-annotation ...
external-parameter-name → identifier
local-parameter-name → identifier
default-argument-clause → = expression

GRAMMAR OF AN ENUMERATION DECLARATION
enum-declaration → attributesopt access-level-modifieropt union-style-enum
enum-declaration → attributesopt access-level-modifieropt raw-value-style-enum
union-style-enum → indirectopt enum enum-name generic-parameter-clauseopt type-inheritance-clauseopt generic-where-clauseopt { union-style-enum-membersopt }
union-style-enum-members → union-style-enum-member union-style-enum-membersopt
union-style-enum-member → declaration | union-style-enum-case-clause | compiler-control-statement
union-style-enum-case-clause → attributesopt indirectopt case union-style-enum-case-list
union-style-enum-case-list → union-style-enum-case | union-style-enum-case , union-style-enum-case-list
union-style-enum-case → enum-case-name tuple-typeopt
enum-name → identifier
enum-case-name → identifier
raw-value-style-enum → enum enum-name generic-parameter-clauseopt type-inheritance-clausegeneric-where-clauseopt { raw-value-style-enum-members }
raw-value-style-enum-members → raw-value-style-enum-member raw-value-style-enum-membersopt
raw-value-style-enum-member → declaration | raw-value-style-enum-case-clause | compiler-control-statement
raw-value-style-enum-case-clause → attributesopt case raw-value-style-enum-case-list
raw-value-style-enum-case-list → raw-value-style-enum-case | raw-value-style-enum-case , raw-value-style-enum-case-list
raw-value-style-enum-case → enum-case-name raw-value-assignmentopt
raw-value-assignment → = raw-value-literal
raw-value-literal → numeric-literal | static-string-literal | boolean-literal

GRAMMAR OF A STRUCTURE DECLARATION
struct-declaration → attributesopt access-level-modifieropt struct struct-name generic-parameter-clauseopt type-inheritance-clauseopt generic-where-clauseopt struct-body
struct-name → identifier
struct-body → { struct-membersopt }
struct-members → struct-member struct-membersopt
struct-member → declaration | compiler-control-statement

GRAMMAR OF A CLASS DECLARATION
class-declaration → attributesopt access-level-modifieropt finalopt class class-name generic-parameter-clauseopt type-inheritance-clauseopt generic-where-clauseopt class-body
class-declaration → attributesopt final access-level-modifieropt class class-name generic-parameter-clauseopt type-inheritance-clauseopt generic-where-clauseopt class-body
class-name → identifier
class-body → { class-membersopt }
class-members → class-member class-membersopt
class-member → declaration | compiler-control-statement

GRAMMAR OF A ACTOR DECLARATION
actor-declaration → attributesopt access-level-modifieropt actor struct-name generic-parameter-clauseopt type-inheritance-clauseopt generic-where-clauseopt actor-body
actor-name → identifier
actor-body → { actor-membersopt }
actor-members → actor-member actor-membersopt
actor-member → declaration | compiler-control-statement

GRAMMAR OF A PROTOCOL DECLARATION
protocol-declaration → attributesopt access-level-modifieropt protocol protocol-name type-inheritance-clauseopt generic-where-clauseopt protocol-body
protocol-name → identifier
protocol-body → { protocol-membersopt }
protocol-members → protocol-member protocol-membersopt
protocol-member → protocol-member-declaration | compiler-control-statement
protocol-member-declaration → protocol-property-declaration
protocol-member-declaration → protocol-method-declaration
protocol-member-declaration → protocol-initializer-declaration
protocol-member-declaration → protocol-subscript-declaration
protocol-member-declaration → protocol-associated-type-declaration
protocol-member-declaration → typealias-declaration

GRAMMAR OF A PROTOCOL PROPERTY DECLARATION
protocol-property-declaration → variable-declaration-head variable-name type-annotation getter-setter-keyword-block

GRAMMAR OF A PROTOCOL METHOD DECLARATION
protocol-method-declaration → function-head function-name generic-parameter-clauseopt function-signature generic-where-clauseopt

GRAMMAR OF A PROTOCOL INITIALIZER DECLARATION
protocol-initializer-declaration → initializer-head generic-parameter-clauseopt parameter-clause throwsopt generic-where-clauseopt
protocol-initializer-declaration → initializer-head generic-parameter-clauseopt parameter-clause rethrows generic-where-clauseopt

GRAMMAR OF A PROTOCOL SUBSCRIPT DECLARATION
protocol-subscript-declaration → subscript-head subscript-result generic-where-clauseopt getter-setter-keyword-block

GRAMMAR OF A PROTOCOL ASSOCIATED TYPE DECLARATION
protocol-associated-type-declaration → attributesopt access-level-modifieropt associatedtypetypealias-name type-inheritance-clauseopt typealias-assignmentopt generic-where-clauseopt

GRAMMAR OF AN INITIALIZER DECLARATION
initializer-declaration → initializer-head generic-parameter-clauseopt parameter-clause throwsopt generic-where-clauseopt initializer-body
initializer-declaration → initializer-head generic-parameter-clauseopt parameter-clause rethrows generic-where-clauseopt initializer-body
initializer-head → attributesopt declaration-modifiersopt init
initializer-head → attributesopt declaration-modifiersopt init ?
initializer-head → attributesopt declaration-modifiersopt init !
initializer-body → code-block

GRAMMAR OF A DEINITIALIZER DECLARATION
deinitializer-declaration → attributesopt deinit code-block

GRAMMAR OF AN EXTENSION DECLARATION
extension-declaration → attributesopt access-level-modifieropt extension type-identifier type-inheritance-clauseopt generic-where-clauseopt extension-body
extension-body → { extension-membersopt }
extension-members → extension-member extension-membersopt
extension-member → declaration | compiler-control-statement

GRAMMAR OF A SUBSCRIPT DECLARATION
subscript-declaration → subscript-head subscript-result generic-where-clauseopt code-block
subscript-declaration → subscript-head subscript-result generic-where-clauseopt getter-setter-block
subscript-declaration → subscript-head subscript-result generic-where-clauseopt getter-setter-keyword-block
subscript-head → attributesopt declaration-modifiersopt subscript generic-parameter-clauseopt parameter-clause
subscript-result → -> attributesopt type

GRAMMAR OF AN OPERATOR DECLARATION
operator-declaration → prefix-operator-declaration | postfix-operator-declaration | infix-operator-declaration
prefix-operator-declaration → prefix operator operator
postfix-operator-declaration → postfix operator operator
infix-operator-declaration → infix operator operator infix-operator-groupopt
infix-operator-group → : precedence-group-name

GRAMMAR OF A PRECEDENCE GROUP DECLARATION precedence-group-declaration → precedencegroup precedence-group-name { precedence-group-attributesopt }
precedence-group-attributes → precedence-group-attribute precedence-group-attributesopt
precedence-group-attribute → precedence-group-relation
precedence-group-attribute → precedence-group-assignment
precedence-group-attribute → precedence-group-associativity
precedence-group-relation → higherThan : precedence-group-names
precedence-group-relation → lowerThan : precedence-group-names
precedence-group-assignment → assignment : boolean-literal
precedence-group-associativity → associativity : left
precedence-group-associativity → associativity : right
precedence-group-associativity → associativity : none
precedence-group-names → precedence-group-name | precedence-group-name , precedence-group-names
precedence-group-name → identifier

GRAMMAR OF A DECLARATION MODIFIER
declaration-modifier → class | convenience | dynamic | final | infix | lazy | optional | override | postfix | prefix | required | static | unowned | unowned ( safe ) | unowned( unsafe ) | weak
declaration-modifier → access-level-modifier
declaration-modifier → mutation-modifier
declaration-modifiers → declaration-modifier declaration-modifiersopt
access-level-modifier → private | private ( set )
access-level-modifier → fileprivate | fileprivate ( set )
access-level-modifier → internal | internal ( set )
access-level-modifier → public | public ( set )
access-level-modifier → open | open ( set )
mutation-modifier → mutating | nonmutating
actor-isolation-modifier → nonisolated

Attributes(属性)

GRAMMAR OF AN ATTRIBUTE
attribute → @ attribute-name attribute-argument-clauseopt
attribute-name → identifier
attribute-argument-clause → ( balanced-tokensopt )
attributes → attribute attributesopt
balanced-tokens → balanced-token balanced-tokensopt
balanced-token → ( balanced-tokensopt )
balanced-token → [ balanced-tokensopt ]
balanced-token → { balanced-tokensopt }
balanced-token → 任意の識別子、キーワード、リテラル、または演算子
balanced-token → (, ), [, ], {, または } を除く任意の句読点

Patterns(パターン)

GRAMMAR OF A PATTERN
pattern → wildcard-pattern type-annotationopt
pattern → identifier-pattern type-annotationopt
pattern → value-binding-pattern
pattern → tuple-pattern type-annotationopt
pattern → enum-case-pattern
pattern → optional-pattern
pattern → type-casting-pattern
pattern → expression-pattern

GRAMMAR OF A WILDCARD PATTERN
wildcard-pattern → _

GRAMMAR OF AN IDENTIFIER PATTERN
identifier-pattern → identifier

GRAMMAR OF A VALUE-BINDING PATTERN
value-binding-pattern → var pattern | let pattern

GRAMMAR OF A TUPLE PATTERN
tuple-pattern → ( tuple-pattern-element-listopt )
tuple-pattern-element-list → tuple-pattern-element | tuple-pattern-element , tuple-pattern-element-list
tuple-pattern-element → pattern | identifier : pattern

GRAMMAR OF AN ENUMERATION CASE PATTERN
enum-case-pattern → type-identifieropt . enum-case-name tuple-patternopt

GRAMMAR OF AN OPTIONAL PATTERN
optional-pattern → identifier-pattern ?

GRAMMAR OF A TYPE CASTING PATTERN
type-casting-pattern → is-pattern | as-pattern
is-pattern → is type
as-pattern → pattern as type

GRAMMAR OF AN EXPRESSION PATTERN
expression-pattern → expression

Generic Parameters and Arguments(ジェネリックパラメータと引数)

GRAMMAR OF A GENERIC PARAMETER CLAUSE
generic-parameter-clause → < generic-parameter-list >
generic-parameter-list → generic-parameter | generic-parameter , generic-parameter-list
generic-parameter → type-name
generic-parameter → type-name : type-identifier
generic-parameter → type-name : protocol-composition-type
generic-where-clause → where requirement-list
requirement-list → requirement | requirement , requirement-list
requirement → conformance-requirement | same-type-requirement
conformance-requirement → type-identifier : type-identifier
conformance-requirement → type-identifier : protocol-composition-type
same-type-requirement → type-identifier == type

GRAMMAR OF A GENERIC ARGUMENT CLAUSE
generic-argument-clause → < generic-argument-list >
generic-argument-list → generic-argument | generic-argument , generic-argument-list
generic-argument → type

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